The Samurai. This section of Gladiators introduces us to the Samurai through Miyamoto Musashi. We are provided with a brief account of his exploits and in particular shows how Miyamoto personified many of the attributes of the Samurai. The way of the Warrior - Bushido - has been basically broken down into the following attributes... Loyalty; Respect; Courage; Benevolence; Obedience; Honesty; Duty; Filial Piety & Self-Sacrifice. If you compare these to the virtues held dear by Ancient Rome, rather than demonstrating a will to win at any cost, the Samurai code is more about the qualities that he should display towards others. And rather than talk of strength and firmness, these are implied qualities rather than actual written ones. While it was a long time before Bushido was actually written down, Daiymo Kiyomasa Kato (1562 - 1611) did supply his Samurai retainers with a set of house rules. These rules are paraphrased below... One should not be negligent in the ways of retainers. He should rise at 4 in the morning and practice sword technique, eat a meal, then train with bow, the gun and the horse. A well developed retainer should become more so. If you want a hobby - they should be outdoor pass-times such as falconry, deer-hunting and wrestling A retainer should wear clothes made from cotton or silk. If he squanders money on clothes, bringing his finances in disorder, he should be punished. A retainer should spend his money on armour and Martial affairs. When meeting with one's companions, the meeting should be limited to one guest and one host. During Campaign, one should remember that he is Samurai. Any Beautification where it is unnecessary will make him fit for punishment. Noh Drama is absolutely forbidden. A samurai who practices dancing, which is outside the martial arts - should commit seppuku. One should put great effort into learning. One should read books concerning military matters. Books such as Chinese Poetry is forbidden. One will surely become womanized if he gives his heart knowledge of such elegant and delicate refinements. Having being born in the ways of a warrior, one's intention should be to grasp the long and short swords and die. If one does not investigate the code of Bushido daily, it will be difficult for him to die a good and manly death These conditions should be adhered to day and night. If there is any who finds these conditions difficult to fulfil, they should be dismissed immediately. The book goes on to give several examples on ways the virtues have been adhered to, such as loyalty to ones' lord. The most famous of these is the story of the 47 Ronin. Another, lesser known tale is that of Kusunoki Masashige - a Samurai retainer of Emperor Go-Daigo. When the Emperor attempted a military coup to wrest power from the Shogun 1331, the Emperor ordered Masashige to launch an attack on the shogun's army that both knew was suicide. Rather than refuse the order, Masashige said that he wished that he had seven more lives to lay down for his emperor and rode away to his death. Unique among samurai were their rules with regards to women. A samurai was allowed to marry a woman fro the Samurai class and under Confucian law she was required to be loyal to her family, showing respect to her husband and elders and care and love for her children. She was also required to be proficent with the naginata (Japanese Polearm) but there are also tales of Female Samurai. One such tale was that of Tomoe Gozen. In her final battle - in 1184 Gozen was one of Daiymo Yoshinika's last remaining riders. Knowing that the day was lost, Yoshunika ordered Gozen to leave him. Rather than go against the code of Bushido, Gozen decided to ride out in search of the enemy. She came across a group of 30 enemy warriors and laid an ambush, surprising one of the warriors, she "twisted his head off" before riding back to her master. Samurais are known to this day as the quintessential warrior, one who - if he adhered to the code - would give his life for his cause, never shirk his duty and while he was expected to be a powerful and skilful warrior, the expectation was that he would not abuse that power. The Knight. Rather than expect his bride to be able to fight, the knight was seen as the champion of the weak and would defend the rights and virtues of his lady most fair. Rather than concentrate on their conduct in battle, the Tournaments and the Joust is the focus of the knight in Gladiators. One of the most successful of the Tourney knights was Lord William Marshal (the role played by William Hurt in the 2010 movie Robin Hood) was notorious around the tournament circuit. In the early days of the tournament, rather than the pomp and pageantry that we are used to (thanks to Hollywood) it was better described as melee - or a free for all, where if one knight was able to defeat another, the winner would get the loser's armour, his horse and was able to get the loser's family to pay a ransom before he was released. Unlike the Japanese Samurai - who during times of peace were basically unemployed, the European knight created the tournament in order to keep their skills sharp and for them to remain in practice. What also makes the knights unique and in particular why they were looked at in this light is that they represent a unique cross-over between the Gladiators of Rome - in so much that they gained the equivalent of Rock star status and they "performed" for a crowd and the Samurai, as in these were not Trained slaves - being made to fight - but trained from birth as warriors, to live by a code - not slaves, but nobility. The medieval tournament was also the first way where a warrior could practice his skills against other fighters like himself and not put his life at risk - but accidents do happen. There were several different ways that a knight might test his mettle and increase his notoriety and wealth. First was mentioned above the melee. A free for all where knights, squires and men-at-arms would do battle... While this is a modern day reenactment - it is a good approximation of the melee.Another option was the Pas d'armes the ever so classic knight defending a piece of ground from all-comers... quite literally none shall pass.The medieval tournament continued on into the fifteenth century, among the last of the great tourney athletes was King Henry VIII. It is easy to think of Henry VIII as the over weight despot who was so big before he died he actually needed a "royal wiper" because he could n't actually reach to do it himself. But many forget - or just don't know, that Henry was quite the athlete in his youth and actually a very good jouster.